Docker 容器命令

Docker 容器

Docker 容器是一个开源的应用容器引擎,让开发者可以打包他们的应用以及依赖包到一个可移植的容器中,然后发布到任何流行的Linux机器上,也可以实现虚拟化。

容器是从镜像创建的运行实例,它可以被启动、开始、停止、删除。

docker 命令

docker 命令是 Docker执行的必须内容:

docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND

docker

 Usage:  docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND

A self-sufficient runtime for containers

Options:
      --config string      Location of client config files (default "/root/.docker")
  -D, --debug              Enable debug mode
  -H, --host list          Daemon socket(s) to connect to
  -l, --log-level string   Set the logging level ("debug"|"info"|"warn"|"error"|"fatal") (default "info")
      --tls                Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert string   Trust certs signed only by this CA (default "/root/.docker/ca.pem")
      --tlscert string     Path to TLS certificate file (default "/root/.docker/cert.pem")
      --tlskey string      Path to TLS key file (default "/root/.docker/key.pem")
      --tlsverify          Use TLS and verify the remote
  -v, --version            Print version information and quit

Management Commands:
  builder     Manage builds
  config      Manage Docker configs
  container   Manage containers
  engine      Manage the docker engine
  image       Manage images
  network     Manage networks
  node        Manage Swarm nodes
  plugin      Manage plugins
  secret      Manage Docker secrets
  service     Manage services
  stack       Manage Docker stacks
  swarm       Manage Swarm
  system      Manage Docker
  trust       Manage trust on Docker images
  volume      Manage volumes

Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  events      Get real time events from the server
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  history     Show the history of an image
  images      List images
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  info        Display system-wide information
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  login       Log in to a Docker registry
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Run 'docker COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.
 

可以通过命令 docker command --help 更深入的了解指定的 Docker 命令使用方法。

如:

docker info --help

Usage:  docker info [OPTIONS]

Display system-wide information

Options:
  -f, --format string   Format the output using the given Go template 
 

docker 操作容器命令

1、运行容器

我们以运行mysql为例子,详情见 安装 Mysql

docker run -p 3306:3306 --name mymysql -v /mainboot/mysql/conf:/etc/mysql/conf.d -v /mainboot/mysql/logs:/logs -v /mainboot/mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 -d mysql:5.6

Docker run 命令的参数说明

  • -p 3306:3306 : 将容器的3306端口映射到主机的3306端口
  • --name mymysql:将容器命名为mymysql
  • -v /mainboot/mysql/conf:/etc/mysql/conf.d: 将主机中当前目录下的conf挂载到容器的/conf.d
  • -v /mainboot/mysql/logs:/logs: 将主机中当前目录下的logs挂载到容器的/logs
  • -v -v /mainboot/mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql: 将主机中当前目录下的data挂载到容器的/mysql
  • -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 :设置数据库的密码
  • -d mysql:5.6:后台运行mysql:5.6镜像为模板的容器

2、查看容器

运行中的容器

docker ps

 CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
52708e0b2250        mysql:5.6           "docker-entrypoint.s…"   3 hours ago         Up 3 hours          0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp   mymysql
 

全部的容器

docker ps -a

3、查看 mymysql 应用程序日志

docker logs -f mymysql

  Initializing database
2019-03-26 05:44:10 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2019-03-26 05:44:10 0 [Note] Ignoring --secure-file-priv value as server is running with --bootstrap.
2019-03-26 05:44:10 0 [Note] /usr/sbin/mysqld (mysqld 5.6.43) starting as process 33 ...
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.11
2019-03-26 05:44:10 33 [Note] InnoDB: Using Linux native AIO
…………
 

4、查看 mymysql 容器进程

docker top mymysql

UID                 PID                 PPID                C                   STIME               TTY                 TIME                CMD
polkitd             10543               10523               0                   13:44               ?                   00:00:13            mysqld
  

5、重启 mymysql 容器进程

docker restart mymysql

6、停止 mymysql 容器进程

docker stop mymysql

7、启动 mymysql 容器进程

docker start mymysql

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